JVD occurs when the pressure inside the vena cava increases and appears as a bulge running down the right side of the patient's neck.

  • The body has jugular veins on both sides of neck, which moves blood from head to the superior vena cava. 
  • It is the largest vein in the upper body.
  • JVD is when the increased pressure of superior vena cava can cause the jugular vein to bulge.
  • Mostly visible in the right side of the neck.
  • It can be seen as a rope-like bulge of the side of neck.
  • The height of bulge measured from the top of the clavicle or collar bone or is an indirect indicator of CVP.
Causes
  • Cardiac tamponade (Life threatening condition)
  • Constrictive pericarditis
  • Superior vena cava obstruction
  • Tricuspid valve stenosis
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Right sided heart failure
Symptoms
  • Tachycardia
  • Bluish discoloration of lips and finger nails
  • Chest pain, chest tightness
  • Nocturia 
  • Tachypnea
  • Decreased alertness
  • Anxiety 
  • Sweating
  • Weight gain or loss