HYPERTENSION

Hypertension, is also known as high blood pressure, is a long term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure typically does not cause any symptoms.
                         Systemic hypertension (high blood pressure) is an increase in systemic blood pressure.  There are two major types of systemic hypertension.  Essential hypertension, which is idiopathic (primary) hypertension, is the commonest.  Secondary hypertension results from a specific underlying disease.

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CAUSES

Primary hypertension- The exact causes of high blood pressure are not known.

  • Smoking
  • Lack of activity
  • Obesity
  • Stress
  • Old age
  • Genetics
  • Too much alcohol consumption
Secondary hypertension

  • Renal vascular disease
  • Parenchymal diseases
  • Polycystic kidney diseases
  • Obstructive uropathy
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Drugs like NSAIDs, corticosteroids, sympathomimetics
  • Aortoartereitis
  • Coarctation of the aorta
  • Obesity
  • Alcohol
  • Pregnancy- pre-eclampsia
CLINICAL FEATURES

  • Severe headache
  • Fatigue or confusion
  • Vision problems
  • Chest pain
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Irregular heartbeat
INVESTIGATIONS
  • Blood pressure monitoring
  • Routine blood investigations- electrolytes level, blood glucose levels, LFT, RFT
  • ECG
  • Additional investigations according to the patient condition
MANAGEMENT
  • Secure airway, breathing and circulation.
  • IV access
  • Connect to a cardiac monitor
  • Supply Oxygen- if the patient is hypoxic
  • Drugs include - ACE inhibitors, Diuretics, Beta-blockers, Calcium channel blockers.
  • Inj Labetalol 5-10mg iv stat doses are given (increase according to blood pressure)
  • Inj NTG infusion according to the blood pressure.
  • Continue management according to the patient condition.